General IDP Context in Somalia
Somalia continues to be affected by numerous challenges, among them chronic internal displacement. Over the years, the country’s agro-pastoralist and pastoralist communities have been continually displaced because of environmental challenges such as cyclical droughts and floods, along with conflict resulting from socio-cultural, political and economic factors. In Somalia, internal displacement is an adaptation medium. Banadir Region is the nucleus of internal displacement in the country, largely by virtue of its location. Its long coastal area provides the displaced people opportunities for food-aid and other alternative livelihood strategy. The region hosts the capital city, Mogadishu, the country’s business center and home to humanitarian agencies and civil society.
Furthermore, Most IDPs live in settlements on private and public land and face a constant threat of eviction from private landowners or the government. The Somali Government initiated a relocation plan, but this was never implemented because of the tenuous security situation. Instead, forced evictions increased against the vulnerable IDPs in Mogadishu who lived in long-term protracted displacement and mostly relying on humanitarian assistance. Eventually, most of the evicted people settled in spontaneous IDP settlements between km7 and km13 along the Mogadishu–Afgooye corridor as well as Dayniile and Hodan Districts
Moreover, currently there are thousands of returnees from Yemen and Kenya who also joined in the already desperate and over-crowded IDP Settlements in Mogadishu and the surrounding locations.
Today, Somali IDPs face a number of protection challenges due to more than two decades of armed conflict, human rights violations, and general insecurity and tribal conflict, which continue to trigger flight from places of origin to areas of safety.
On the 10th,11th and 12th of June 2016, Defence For Children International-Somalia’s Child Protection, Assessment and Monitoring teams conducted a rapid assessment of the location and needs of internally displaced children and their caregivers who had recently arrived in the Dayniile district of Mogadishu city. Through interviews with community focal points the following matters were observed:
⦁ IDP girls and boys have experienced a wide variety of issues during displacement, including psychosocial distress, limited access to basic resources and a lack of safe environment.
⦁ IDP children face or are at risk of facing violent attacks.
⦁ IDP children are at increased risk of exploitation including child labour.
⦁ There are no available child-friendly activities for children, and children are not engaged in any activities. There are currently no recreational opportunities for children in these locations, potentially due to over-crowdedness, a lack of shade and dangerous surroundings.
⦁ There is a high demand for the establishment of educational and recreational activities in the areas hosting the IDPs.
⦁ There are a number of children with disabilities and/or special needs present among the IDPs and there are currently no specialized services available.
Background & Methodology
Throughout the night of June 9th 2016, hundreds of families from Janaale District, Mishaani, Yoontoy and the other surrounding Villages, fled their homes due to the recent escalation of the conflict between the Somali National Army (SNA) and the insurgents. Hundreds of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) entered Banadir Region and settled in Dayniile IDP Camps. Most of these IDPs have found refuge in these already desperate and over-crowded IDP Settlements.
An estimated 70 percent of the IDPs in Dayniile District are children, the majority of which are under 5 years old.
In addition, emergency child protection measures are critical as children are at greater risk of exploitation, violence, neglect and abuse during times of displacement. Therefore, on June 10th, 11th and 12th DCI-SOM’s Child Protection, Assessment and Monitoring teams were mobilized to conduct a rapid assessment of the needs of IDP children and caregivers in Dayniile, Mogadishu.
The locations of the assessment were determined through triangulation of information obtained from IDMAN IDP Umbrella. Focusing specifically on areas with a greater number of families most likely to remain in Dayniile IDP Settlements in the near future, a total of seven locations were identified. On August 10th DCI-SOM dispatched teams to conduct interviews with Key Informants (KIs) in four locations. Throughout the first day of assessment, a total of 50 interviews were conducted with community focal points in the three IDP settlements.
On June 12th DCI-Somalia Assessment Mission team conducted a total of 27 interviews at the remaining Settlements.
Basically, DCI-SOM conducted the assessment utilizing a questionnaire based on the Global Child Protection Rapid Assessment Toolkit (CPRA),
Due to the rapid nature of the assessment and highly fluctuating population, respondents were selected on the basis of first convenience sampling and then snowball sampling. Respondents were asked to provide information representative of their community. At each site, the first point of contact was the site or community representative. From this initial convenience sampling, the DCI-SOM team then used a snowball sampling methodology, asking each Key Informant (KI) to refer them on to another. In order to establish a full picture of the population in each site, DCI-SOM aimed to interview a heterogeneous selection of KIs, based on ethnic background, age, and sex. 36 men and 40 women were interviewed – a total of 77 Key Informants (gender of one KI was not specified). Whenever possible, priority was given to KIs with children.
The limitations of the assessment include time restraints and the constraints of having a highly mobile population, which made it difficult to estimate precise figures and identify the Key Informants that would be considered most representative of the IDP population currently in Dayniile and Hodan Districts of Mogadishu.
Discussions with Key Informants focused on the following key issues: family separation; children’s psychological well-being and common issues faced by boys and girls, including forms of violence and abuse; activities that children are currently engaging in; children with disabilities or special needs; the future plans of the families.
Though some KIs mentioned that they knew families who had lost children during the shelling of their villages, most of them were not aware of any families that were missing children as a direct cause of movement or displacement.
The majority of KIs did not report any families taking care of children that were not theirs. Of the six that did, one explained that it was due to the fact that the child’s mother was ill. It is worth noting that, at the Daadsaney settlement in Dayniile district , one women expressed that she knew of a number of families taking care of children that were not part of their family prior to displacement.
69 KIs reported not knowing of any children under the age of 18 living on their own. Of the eight that did, one explained that children currently living on their own were orphans. One case was identified in the Weedow Settlement, where a 17 year old child was taking care of his brothers and sisters due to the death of his father. In the Barwaaqo Settlement, two Key Informants both identified four children currently living on their own. However, during the Assessment Mission DCI-SOM team visited these children.
Nutrition: The nutrition situation in Banadir has improved from very critical to serious; however the IDP
nutrition situation remains vulnerable due to a dependence on humanitarian assistance, income from
petty trade and casual labor opportunities that are closely linked with rural and urban livelihoods.
Sustainable nutrition interventions are required to reduce malnutrition.
WASH: The introduction of the tri-cluster in two key camps, Zones K and 77, improved WASH services.
WASH activities continue to grow and need regular scaling up as a result of new arrivals and intra-camp
displacement. The city lacks a sufficient waste collection system, with many neighbourhoods and IDP
settlements often overwhelmed by uncollected garbage. Vulnerable people are at risk of a cholera
outbreak during the rainy season.
Health: Under the existing response mechanism, the Health Cluster closely collaborates with the WASH
and Nutrition Clusters in IDP settlements in Zones K and 77. In the camps there is insufficient shelter,
overcrowding, bad hygiene conditions, and a limited access to basic services/amenities such as health,
clean water, latrines, and health education activities. This resulted in increased cases of communicable
diseases such as upper and lower respiratory tract infections, skin infections, outbreaks of acute watery
diarrhoea (AWD), and confirmed cholera and measles cases.
Shelter and NFIs: Shelter and non-food items (NFIs) remain the second most important need among IDPs.
Makeshift shelters are congested and in very poor condition, with a significant number situated in lowlying
areas exposed during the Gu rains, and a moderate while issues of dignity, safety and security remain a priority, with 71 per cent of families living in a 3.14m2 single room (equivalent to a two-person camping tent) and 89 per cent of the shelters unsecure with no lock.
Protection: The general insecurity situation in Mogadishu remains a crucial protection concern. Civilian
lives are endangered, access to livelihoods is limited, and IDPs are exposed to countless violations
including but not limited to, gender-based violence (GBV), rape and murder during movement and aid
distribution. They are also exposed to looting of relief supplies, forced early marriages, domestic violence;
child labour and forced conscription of minors.
In the settlement, three main typologies of shelters were observed: buuls, tents and transitional shelters. The vast majority (78%) of shelters are buuls. The remaining shelter types are transitional shelters (14%) and tents (7%). Less than 1%, of the population reported to be living in either a makeshift or public building.
The link between age of the buul; (hut) (and therefore displacement data) and its condition is not explicit in the settlement. Furthermore, the assumption that the older the buul is, the better it is in terms of condition, materials used and protection from weather hazards does not seem to be consistent in this settlement. Buuls within the settlement were found to be poorly constructed and maintained.
Throughout the settlement it was reported that nearly all male (82%) and female (82%) children, between the ages of 5 to 17 do not attend school.
The majority of respondents (77%) reported distance to school was the m
ain reason children did not attend school. This is consistent when compared with assets and humanitarian interventions.
Security was reported as the second highest reason. This could be linked to the distance necessary to reach schools.
Anecdotal evidence suggests that, despite the lack of formal schooling, children are receiving education through informal schooling; Madrasa and Koranic teaching. Access to informal education and community preference should be further explored in the settlement.
It is recommended that education actors look to prioritize access to education facilities within the IDP Settlements.
IDP children attending koranic school in Daacad IDP settlement
Based on the key findings from the assessment, the following recommendations are put forward to inform the humanitarian response:
1. Shelter actors should consider immediate interventions to support tents as “urgent” be prioritized in shelter interventions.
2. Weather is the main issue related to shelter that IDP households are reporting. This issue is related to heat, wind and rain. As mentioned above, additional layers for the huts may mitigate this issue.
3. In the case of evicted households, shelter actors should further explore household relocation strategies and use of assets. Specifically, the sale of an informal tax on shelter items.
4. Land is also reported as a major issue in the settlement. Shelter actors should work with Protection actors to further explore land ownership issues and settlement dynamics.
5. Shelter actors should work with local authorities and camp leaders to prioritize site planning and resource management.
6. Despite the fact that 68% of households reported access to a latrine, enumerator observations confirm high numbers of displaced persons use each latrine. Actors should therefore prioritize the construction of emergency latrines throughout the surveyed area.
7. Education actors should look to prioritize access and proximity to education facilities within and in the vicinity of the displacement site.
8. Access to informal education and community preference should be further explored in the settlement.
9. Conducting mass awareness campaign on IDPs basic rights while organizing IDPs rights Workshops and outreach activities.